Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Absorber Nozzles

Removal of sulfur oxides, commonly referred to as SOx, from an exhaust gases using an alkali reagent, such as a wet limestone slurry

When fossil fuels are utilized in combustion processes to run boilers, furnaces, or other equipment they have the potential to release SO2 or SO3 as part of the exhaust gas. These sulfur oxides react easily with other elements to form harmful compound such as sulfuric acid and have the potential to negatively affect human health and the environment. Due to these potential effects, control of this compound in flue gases is an essential part of coal fired power plants and other industrial applications.

Due to erosion, plugging, and build-up concerns, one of the most reliable systems to control these emissions is an open-tower wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process using a limestone, hydrated lime, seawater, or other alkaline solution. Spray nozzles are able to effectively and reliably distribute these slurries into absorption towers. By creating uniform patterns of properly sized droplets, these nozzles are able to effectively create the surface area needed for proper absorbtion while minimizing entrainment of the scrubbing solution into the flue gas.

FGD inquiry worksheet (PDF - 87 KB)

BETE FGD Technical Manual (PDF - 1 MB)

BETE FGD Brochure (PDF - 755 KB)

Looking for information on Marine FGD Scrubbing Nozzles?

Selecting an FGD Absorber Nozzle:

Important factors to consider:

  • Scrubbing media density and viscosity
  • Required droplet size
    • The correct droplet size is essential to ensuring proper absorption rates
  • Nozzle material
    • As the flue gas is often corrosive and the scrubbing fluid is frequently a slurry with high solids content and abrasive properties, selecting the appropriate corrosion and wear resistant material is important
  • Nozzle clog resistance
    • As the scrubbing fluid is frequently a slurry with high solids content, selection of the nozzle with regard to clog resistance is important
  • Nozzle spray pattern and placement
    • In order to ensure proper absorption complete coverage of the gas stream with no bypass and sufficient residence time is important
  • Nozzle connection size and type
  • Required scrubbing fluid flow rates
  • Available pressure drop (∆P) across the nozzle
    • ∆P = supply pressure at nozzle inlet - process pressure outside nozzle
  • Our experienced engineers can help determine which nozzle will perform as required with your design details

Common FGD Absorber Nozzle Uses and Industries:

Common FGD Absorber Nozzles:

Flue gas desulfurization nozzles are usually custom-built. We recommend the following series:


  • Spray tip constructed from extremely abrasion resistant material
  • Thirty percent finer atomization than an equivalent whirl nozzle
Nozzle Type(s):
  • BETE's original spiral full cone design has been proven to provide an ideal spray pattern for FGD applications by providing a mix of coarser droplets for entrainment resistance encapsulating and projecting smaller droplets ideal for absorption
Spray Pattern(s):
Full Cone
Flow Range:
45.6 to 2390 gpm
Typical Pressure Range:
10 to 30 psi
Angle Range:
90 - 120°
Common Materials:
Cobalt Alloy 6, Ceramic
  • Cobalt alloy 6 provides some of the best wear resistance of an alloy.
  • Silicon carbide combines maximum abrasion resistance with excellent corrosion and temperature resistance

Full Cone

Select a nozzle number below for performance graph, drawings, and to request a quote.
Nozzle Number Connection Sizes Spray Angles gpm @ psi     (density: 1 SG)
5 psi 20 psi 40 psi 60 psi 100 psi 400 psi
ST 56 1 1/2″ 90°, 120° 45.6 91.2 129 158 204 408
ST 64 1 1/2″ 90°, 120° 59.7 119 169 207 267 534
ST 72 1 1/2″ 90°, 120° 68.0 136 192 235 304 608
ST 88 2″, 2 1/2″ 90°, 120° 99.1 198 280 343 443 886
ST 96 2″, 3″ 90°, 120° 125 250 354 433 559 1120
ST 112 3″ 90°, 120° 181 362 512 627 810 1620
ST 128 3″ 90°, 120° 239 479 677 829 1070 2140

These values are filtered based on search criteria or application and do not represent the full range of nozzles for this series. Click here to see all available series offerings.